>On Dec. 27, 1979, Soviet forces seized control of Afghanistan. President Hafizullah Amin, who was overthrown and executed, was replaced by Babrak Karmal.

On Dec. 27, 1901, Marlene Dietrich, the magnetic movie star and singer who was considered an international symbol of glamour, was born. Following her death on May 6, 1992, her obituary appeared in The Times.

1822 Scientist Louis Pasteur was born in Dole, France.

1831 British naturalist Charles Darwin set out on a voyage to the Pacific Ocean aboard the HMS Beagle. Darwin’s discoveries during the nearly five-year journey helped form the basis of his theories on evolution.

1900 Prohibitionist Carry Nation carried out her first public smashing of a bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kan.

1927 The landmark musical “Show Boat” – with music by Jerome Kern and libretto by Oscar Hammerstein II – opened at the Ziegfeld Theater in New York City.

1932 Radio City Music Hall opened in New York City.

1945 The World Bank was created with an agreement signed by 28 nations.

1947 The children’s TV program “Howdy Doody” debuted on NBC.

1949 Queen Juliana of the Netherlands granted sovereignty to Indonesia after more than 300 years of Dutch rule.

1968 Apollo 8, the first spaceflight to orbit the moon, returned to Earth.

1970 “Hello, Dolly!” closed on Broadway after a run of 2,844 performances.

1985 Naturalist Dian Fossey, who had studied gorillas in the wild, was found hacked to death at a research station in Rwanda.

2001 U.S. officials announced that Taliban and al-Qaida prisoners would be held at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

2002 North Korea ordered U.N. nuclear inspectors to leave the country and said it would restart a laboratory capable of producing plutonium for nuclear weapons.

2005 Indonesia’s Aceh rebels formally abolished their 30-year armed struggle for independence under a peace deal born out of the 2004 tsunami.

2007 Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in a bomb and shooting attack as she left an election rally in Rawalpindi.

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